The reform of the criminal code (Article 31bis) under the ‘Organic law 1/2015’ (in force since the 1st of July 2015) establishes a dual pathway in attributing criminal liability to corporate entities. Within the first route, referred to as direct attribution, a...read more
EU law is divided into ‘primary’ and ‘secondary’ legislation. The treaties (primary legislation) are the basis or ground rules for all EU action.
Secondary legislation – which includes regulations, directives and decisions – are derived from the principles and objectives set out in the treaties.read more